Thursday, March 12, 2020
The Cinema of Martin Scorsese Essays The Cinema of Martin Scorsese Essay The Cinema of Martin Scorsese Essay Having emerged as the key figure of Hollywood cinema in the 1970s, Martin Scorsese is one of those personalities of Hollywood who considers film making to be a religion above anything else Ã¢â¬â one that he staunchly follows and reveres. This is a fact apparent in his school of film making which not only affected drastic changes but also ushered in a whole new ear of emotionally intelligent film making, especially in the genre of crime drama. In 1969, Scorsese embarked upon the start of his journey as a film maker with Ã¢â¬ËWhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that knocking at my door?Ã¢â¬â¢ where he went from being an ordinary hand at the editing table straight to the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s chair. This was followed by notable efforts on his part where his talent as director shone through in memorable films like Mean Streets, Bringing out the dead, Raging bull, Last temptation of the Christ, Boxcar Bertha, the hugely acclaimed Kundun and more recently, Gangs of New York. If one were to take a deeper look into his body of work, the brightly lit pace of most of his plot lines would become apparent even through the more obvious grey tones that seem to underscore most of his movies. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s face it Ã¢â¬â you think Scorsese; you think grey. This brings directly to the two movies we are about to compare. The first one is ScorseseÃ¢â¬â¢s debut Ã¢â¬ËWhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that knocking at my doorÃ¢â¬â¢ while the other is Ã¢â¬ËMean streetsÃ¢â¬â¢, a movie that was close on the heels of the first. WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that knocking at my door, is believed by many to be a trial run for his later classics like Mean Streets and Taxi Driver. But the fact remains that this story of a boy in search of his identity when it comes to marrying the woman he loved Ã¢â¬â the woman who is scarred for life by rape Ã¢â¬â is a strong and compelling story to tell. Originally titled, I call first, this movie delivers many clever flourishes and novel ideas, despite the critical panning that observed lack of proper correlation between the scenes. This movie was written by Martin Scorsese himself and was released on the 15th of November, 1969. (www.wikipedia.com) Structured on a budget of $75,000 within a running time of 90 minutes, this movie calls the viewers attention to an easy flow of details and large doses of realist effects embedded in its overall mise en scÃ ¨n. Mean Streets is said to be a triumph of personal film making in context of its unparalleled demonstration of the power a film to convey reality. This movie was one of ScorseseÃ¢â¬â¢s early films starring Harvey Kietel and Robert De Niro. A notable feature of this movie is that although, the plot revolves around Italian American, there were only two Italians on the cast, i.e. Robert De Niro and Cesare DaNova. Released on the 2nd of October, 1973 after being made on a budget of $500,000, this movie boasts of a plethora of stars in its 110 minute runtime. This filmÃ¢â¬â¢s story revolves essentially around an Italian American man eager to move up the ladder in the local mob, before he realizes that his strict catholic upbringing makes him too forgiving by nature to be successful in the mob. Coming to the formal similarities between the two films, one would first have to define the range of formal similarities. These similarities are to do with aspects of film making like the treatment of the movie, setting, lighting, performances, among various other factors. For facilitation of smooth flowing information throughout this paper, we will chart out these similarities in context of creative orientation. To start with, the characterization as well as the characters of both movies bears distinct similarities. Considering the fact the screenplay for Mean Streets initially began as a continuation of the characters in his first film, WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that knocking at my door, one will find that the J.R of WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that, and Charlie of Mean Streets could very well be brothers up in arms, against the whole world and their metal plight more than anything else. WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that boasts of a dynamic performance by Harvey Keitel as the very troubled and confused J.R, as his debut. Meanwhile, Charlie of Mean Streets is almost heart wrenching in his journey from innocence to full knowledge of the fact that he is not cut out to purse a career in the mob. He thus grows up in his own innocent way. Moving on, there is a strong underscore of themes of catholic guilt throughout the plotlines of both films which insert autobiographical elements into the movies. There are also Italian American sentiments on the agendas of both films in the sense that Scorsese manages quite effectively, to bring to life, what he saw growing up on the streets of Little Italy. Further, both films make for great viewing in the sense that it is amazingly enjoyable to go back in time and experience the shades that marked the horizon of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday nuances during the 60s. This has been done rather efficiently by Scorsese in both films Ã¢â¬â whether it is the look, the feel or even the sound of the movie. Even more distinct are the ragged edges of the plots and characters as they go about the all important business of living turbulent lives in that era. Also, the dialogues are beautifully crafted for the characters in both films. For example, in a scene from WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that, JR is seen coyly trying to strike up a conversation with a young lady on the ferry. The are able to develop a conversation even though they figuratively speak different languages him from the street; her a more cultured background. Another similarity would have to be on the camera work. Fluid and dramatic is how every movie buff worth his salt would explain the camera work of both films. Apart from this, the beautifully crafted dialogues for his characters mark both films. Heres one example from WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s that: In one scene, a butcher is seen chopping meat and the camera is looking through a window. The camera pulls back and back and back until you realize its placed on a tall building across the street. But then entering from the stage right on the sidewalk far below, are two characters in the movie, the camera picks up on them then slowly zooms back to follow their actions. Brilliant is not the word. Apart from these similarities are the ones surrounding a kind of realism that Scorsese inevitably lends to all of his films and not just these two in particular, making it apparent that he has lived through some pretty harsh realities in life. Besides this, the fact that comes across clearly in both movies is one that has to do with the medium budget, artisanal, personal film making that characterized the 70s. Most of the key scenes in Mean Streets were almost fully improvised, thus sounding far more authentic than the old-style, theatrical delivery used in most American films up to that time. The actors speech is so profanity-ridden that no screenwriter of the time could have possibly doctored anything even close.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Race and American Revolution - Essay Example Giving the Indians and the Africans a more prominent role meant that the older white-dominated success story f early America would have to change, ideally to be replaced by a more complicated story f cultural conflict and cultural intermingling. Nash next turned to the origins f the American Revolution, and in Urban Crucible, in 1979, he argued that the tensions arising from poverty and other underlying social and economic inequalities in the cities led to a radical lower-class politics that helps to account for the Revolution. Over the past several decades, Nash has devoted himself to the study f African American slavery and African American anti-slave movements--subjects on which he has written his best work. (Skemp 1429-1431) At the same time, together with Charlotte Crabtree at UCLA, he launched the National History Standards Project with funds supplied by the National Endowment for the Humanities. The published work, National Standards for United States History: Exploring the American Experience, which appeared in 1994, was repudiated by former NEH head Lynne Cheney, who had funded it, and disowned by the U.S. Senate by a vote f ninety-nine to one, though few senators actually read the standards. Through all the controversies and attacks--from the left and from the right--Nash never lost his faith that a fairer, more just, and more equitable America could be created by a more "inclusive" historiography, by historians uncovering all the inequities and brutalities f early America, especially those inflicted on Native Americans, African slaves, and poor lower-class whites. Although he did not write extensively on women in early America, inevitably he has been sympathetic to their cause as well. Nash has always sought to project his political vision into his history-writing. As much as anyone, Nash seems to represent the best f the "race, class, gender" historians f the past generation, who have succeeded remarkably in transforming the kind f history taught in many colleges and universities. His role as one f the leaders f this major historiographical transformation makes his book on race and revolution all the more significant. Here Nash applies the "race, class, gender" formula to what is arguably the most important event in American history. Although Nash has titled his book Race And Revolution, his interpretation f the Revolution may not be as unknown as he makes it out to be, owing to the revisionist work f many academic historians over the past four decades. As a result f this work, many people now know who Crispus Attucks is. (But can anyone name the other four victims f the Boston Massacre) f course, if polls f seniors from leading colleges and universities are to be believed, many events f the Revolution appear to be unknown by even the best-educated Americans. Only 34 percent f college seniors were able to identify George Washington as an American general at the battle f Yorktown. Only 23 percent knew that James Madison was the "Father f the Constitution." When Nash laments the "historical amnesia" f Americans, he doesn't appreciate the half f it. (Foster 20-27) Nash intends his book to be "a history f inclusion," an effort to bring into the story f the Revolution those who have been long forgotten: poor whites, Indians, African Americans, women. Compared with the likes f Washington and Madison, these people may have been lowly and
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Business LAw 2 - Assignment Example Introduction General partnership is a business organization in which two or more persons come together to form a business with the aim of realizing profits. In opting for this form of business organization, we considered several factors in the formation of businesses and opted for this form of business given the several flexibility associated with the business. These include; during the formation of the business, the legal requirements are not tedious and lengthy (Dobson, & Stokes, 2008). One undergoes few legal formalities and the business will be granted the permission to legal exist as opposed to other forms of business organization like the limited companies. In the partnership, the partners are directly involved in the daily running of the business and have the opportunity to acclimatize with the requirement of the business and ensure efficient and smooth running of the business (Fletcher, 2002). In addition to these, there are also different expertise brought together in runnin g of the business hence specialization and division of labor. Policies of the Company during Formation During the formation of the company (partnership), we will have to form the reference policies that will be used for the daily running of the business. ... In this sense, the profit or losses realized in the business will be shared according to the assets and capita contributed during the formation of the business. II. Division of Duty and Responsibilities The duties in the partnership will be equally divided given the number of the partners in the business. In the business, there will be no dormant partner and expenditures incurred following outsourced labor will be considered liabilities of the partners of the business (Gage, 2004). III. Dissolution of the partnership Partnership will be in existence until such a time that the following hypothetical situations stipulated in this agreement realized; death of a partner, when the business run into bankruptcy, and when declared by court of law as engaging in unscrupulous business (Hall, 1984). During the dissolution f the partnership, the business assets and the profit or losses will be shared according to the stipulation given by the clause describing Capital and profit sharing. IV. Inco rporation of the new Partners The partnership will remain open for the incorporation of new partnership given they make asset and capital contribution equivalent to those already in the business. The contribution of each partner will be proportionately be determined and profit and losses shared according to the proportion made in the contribution (Lowe, 1999). Policies on the Breach of sale and Purchase of Products In the partnership business and just like any other business, there are sales and purchase of products. These operations in the business require that certain terms and conditions be made and the parties have to adhere to them, failure to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The temperature of the acid Essay My conclusion fully supports my previous hypothesis and predictions that as the temperature increases, the calculated rate of reaction increases. This is shown in my final table of results and graph. However, it does not support my predicted results exactly, as the pattern of the graph is not as I had expected. This can be explained if necessary by inaccuracy of equipment, error in timing or simply human reaction times and judgement and therefore is less important than the accuracy of the predicted fact that the temperature and the rate of reaction are proportional. From my earlier notes I can see that this is because as the temperature increases there is more heat energy. This can be converted into kinetic energy, which makes the particles move around faster, and therefore have more chance of colliding with each other. Also, larger volumes of heat and energy means more effective collisions are created. I therefore conclude that the relationship between temperature and rate of reaction is indirectly proportional, in that as the temperature increases, the rate of the reactions taking place increases also. Evaluation I feel that both my method and equipment were fairly reliable, as my results fit fairly closely with how I imagined they would. I have taken enough results and repeats, and these are close enough to my prediction to create and support a firm conclusion. However, a few of my results were slightly anomalous, and the graph did not end up in the exact shape I had predicted, and therefore there must be ways to make my experiment more accurate. There are several things I have noticed which could have adversely affected any results I got, and I have tried to think of ways in which I could alter them if I was to re-do the experiments now. It is important to remember that the line of best fit on my graph is a straight line, showing only a basic upward trend, not a graph which accelerates as I predicted. When, towards the end of the given time for practicals, I was looking to re-do any points, I only looked at my first graph of time taken against temperature (see page 10), not at the graph of rate against temperature. Therefore, instead of trying to repeat points which fall a little away from my best-fit line, such as that at 24i C or that at 50i C, I added another point at an important stage in my original graph, at 18i C. This seemed a valuable point, but looking at my rate graph it lies exactly on my best-fit line. So while it does serve to highlight the accuracy of my results and best-fit line, it would probably have been more valuable to repeat the points at 24 and 50i C. Because of reasons stated (on page 8), the point at 50i C didnt have a repeat to begin with, and therefore ought to be looked at as less valid than the other points anyway. Most of the potential inaccuracies in my experiment were caused by my equipment, rather than the method, as I felt that my method was reliable. I especially liked my system for heating, as it almost invariably kept the acid and tablets at a constant temperature and it produced accurate results. There are a few reasons that I can identify why the rate may have been above my best-fit line (such as at 24i C). If this is the case, it means that the product of 50cmi carbon dioxide was produced within a shorter time than expected. This could be due to the temperature being higher than I had believed (for example if it rose during the reaction), or the gas syringe not being back to exactly zero before starting the experiment (sometimes I found it got knocked so it was already at approximately one or two cmi ). Therefore, in theory, checking and making sure of both these things before the start of each experiment could have improved my method, and if I was to repeat the experiment I would ensure I was doing these things. There are also reasons why the rate may have been below my best-fit line (such as at 50iC). This means that the product (50cmi of carbon dioxide) took a longer time to be produced than expected, or that it took a longer time than average to show in the gas syringe. This could be due to the temperature being lower than I thought (for example having dropped during the reaction). In future, this should be checked before the experiment is started. It could also be due to faulty equipment, like the gas syringe getting stuck or the rubber joining the tube not being on properly, or being on different amounts so that the gas took longer to travel up the tube. If the experiment was repeated, the gas syringe should be chosen carefully as one which is not either too loose or too stiff, and the joining tube should be put on properly, so that no gas is allowed to escape when the pressure builds up inside the conical flask. Also, a certain degree of error must be allowed for in that a second person is necessary when starting an experiment. This is because you need one hand to add the tablets, one hand to put the bung in and a third hand to start the stopclock. This increases the chances of the experiment being inaccurate, as two different people are very unlikely to be completely synchronised. Therefore the gas has time to escape unnoticed at the start of each reaction before the bung is put in. I can see little which could be done about this in future experiments. In both cases (above or below the best-fit line) the experiment would have benefited from a greater number of results being taken at smaller intervals. This would probably have further supported my conclusion and may also have more accurately displayed a less obvious trend such as the one I originally predicted. Taking results in a wider range, (for example from 5i C to 70iC) with repeats to verify accuracy, would have strengthened my evidence. It would only have done this if, as I imagine, a continuing trend showed in the extra results. In all of the experiments, a degree of error in continuity must be taken into account. It is extremely unlikely that the tablets all had the same mass, or that there was the same volume of hydrochloric acid down to the last drop. I tried to make this as accurate as possible, using a burette instead of a measuring cylinder, and only getting the tablets out at the last minute so that they were as whole and un-tampered-with as they could be. If the experiment was to be repeated on a larger timescale, I could measure the mass of the tablets to increase accuracy. It is also impossible to swirl the beaker at exactly the same vigorousness every time, although I tried to keep it as constant as I could. If I was looking to test these results on a much wider scale, I could use other common antacid tablets with similar active ingredients, keeping the type and volume of acid constant. This would prove that the tablets that I used were regular, and didnt just coincidentally produce typical results.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
All Aboard: Discrimination in Sports As white, American males, are we feeling left out? Of course not, we are the envy of every other race, ethnicity, and gender. Right? To anyone that believes this, it must then be asked: If we, as white males, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t feeling Ã¢â¬Å"left out,Ã¢â¬ then why do we continually try to sneak aboard the overcrowded train of discrimination? As the past has shown, the tracks this train screams across undoubtedly open up to a deep chasm of hurt and pain. And yet, it seems to be one of the most sought after tickets today. Have we lost sight of the real struggles from the Civil Rights and Women Movements, only to replace them with ridiculous reverse-discrimination issues of today? Reverse discrimination has recently become the new fad in sports. First we were blessed with grumbles from less-than-athletic, underachieving, wannabe professional basketball players saying their sport has begun to discriminate against them because they are white. But instead of grumbling, maybe they should thank Harry Ã¢â¬Å"BuckyÃ¢â¬ Lew for becoming the first African American in professional basketball. Thank him because now owners sign players based on talent and ability instead of the color of their skin. So, if you hear the bad news that the L.A. Clippers just donÃ¢â¬â¢t have room on their roster for you, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not because youÃ¢â¬â¢re white ? youÃ¢â¬â¢re just not good enough. Unfortunately, this plague of claiming reverse discrimination has now filtered into college athletics as well. Andrew Medcalf was denied a job as PennsylvaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s head coach of womanÃ¢â¬â¢s crew two years ago, and he has now turned it into a discrimination case. In his mind, it was ludicrous that a college would turn him down because there was a better candidate for the job. Luckily for him, this other candidate was a woman. So, instead of accepting that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t qualified enough to become head coach, he simply claimed gender discrimination ? and he won. The University of Pennsylvania was forced to pay $115,000 in lost wages, emotional distress, and punitive damages. Pennsylvania ended up hiring Barbara Kirch instead of Medcalf in 1999. Who knows, maybe Kirch was hired based on her gender.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Running head: MARRIAGE AS AN INSTITUTION The Importance of Marriage Ana Vertz PS301 Mrs. Kathy Erickson August 30, 2009 The Importance of Marriage From Colonial times to present marriage has been an integral part of American culture. The importance is has been evident in that it is one of the few institutions that started with the country and is still very popular. What makes marriage an important institution? This paper will discuss the perceptions of the importance of marriage for men and women, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s influence in the marriage relationship, the links between psychological distress and martial conflict, attitude towards same sex marriages and the effects of cohabitation and marriage commitment. The first section of this paper examines the importance of marriage from male and female perspectives. Research from the National Survey of Families and Households suggested the following trends: Men and women both feel that marriage is more important to men; women view marriage as optional for both men and women for having a satisfying life; women are more likely to think that men cannot have a satisfying life without marriage; youthful and more educated individuals are less likely to put emphasis on marriage; religious individuals and those married who have children predominantly more inclined to think that men nor women can have fulfilling lives without the institution of marriage. Research from the National Survey listed above also suggests that men get a greater benefit from marriage than do women as stated below from a study conducted on whether or not men need a spouse and the importance of marriage. In the article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Do Men Ã¢â¬Å"NeedÃ¢â¬ a Spouse more than Women? : Perceptions of The Importance of Marriage for Men and WomenÃ¢â¬ the authors state: Ã¢â¬Å"As Nock (1998:3) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Men reap greater gains than women for virtually every outcome affected by marriage. Research results showing the greater benefit of marriage for men than for women on many dimensions, particularly physical and mental health (Bernard 1972; Grove 1973; Waite and Gallagher 2000), together with research has shown that women provide Ã¢â¬Å"kin-keepingÃ¢â¬ benefits to men by strengthening their relationships with their children and other relatives (Cooney and Uhlenberg 1990; Rossi and Rossi 1990), have led many to argue that it is men who Ã¢â¬Å"needÃ¢â¬ marriage more than women. This view is particularly prevalent among theorists of family who focus on its economic dimensions. By implication, they posit marriage to be a Ã¢â¬Å"normal goodÃ¢â¬ for men but an Ã¢â¬Å"inferior goodÃ¢â¬ for women when they argue that increased earnings lead men to Ã¢â¬Å"buy ontoÃ¢â¬ family roles (Becker 1991; Cherlin 1992) while women use theirs to Ã¢â¬Å"buy outÃ¢â¬ of marriage (Espenshade 1985; Westoff 1986). Ã¢â¬ In many ways this research supports the fact that marriage meets the need of a man better than that of a woman. Next we will look at research conducted from the female perspective. An excerpt from the same article states: Ã¢â¬Å"The growth of female labor force participation that accelerated in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s (Goldin 1990), however, appeared to many observers to undermine what were by then conventional reasons for women to marry (Westoff 1986). As a result, women were thought to be questioning the desirability of a domestic life (Friedan 1962) and coming to believe that Ã¢â¬Å"womenÃ¢â¬â¢s marriageÃ¢â¬ was less desirable than Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬â¢s marriageÃ¢â¬ (Bernard 1972). Feminist theory has reinforced the notion that women and men face very different experiences in the family life and hence have different experiences in family life and hence have different interestÃ¢â¬â¢s vis-a-vis family roles, which are said to favor men (Ferree 1990). The benefits of simply Ã¢â¬Å"tradingÃ¢â¬ housework for menÃ¢â¬â¢s wages (the basis for the economic argument) have declined, given the longer-term costs in terms of career development and the higher risks imposed by the increase in divorce (Thomson and Walker 1995), and the fact that wivesÃ¢â¬â¢ expected role has added employment to their traditional household tasks (Hochschild 1989; DeVault 1990). Hence, modern women may have had more reason than men to reevaluate what they might gain from marriage. These speculations are at least partially reinforced by some research that does suggest men expect to benefit more from marriage than do women. The analyses of shifting attitudes make it plausible that men place more importance on marriage than women. While most people believe that the married are happier than those who are not married, this belief is more likely to be held by men than women (Axinn nd Thornton 2000). Indeed, women are more likely to disagree than men that it is better to be married than single (Thornton and Young-DeMArco 2001). These gender differences suggest that women, at least, are less sure that marriage is important, and they are likely to be thinking more about their own situation as women than about menÃ¢â¬â¢s. Therefore, we expect that in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, men and women will see marriage as more necessary for men than women. These considerations, together with the paucity of research that addresses the question of who needs to be married more, men or women, motivate our research (Kaufman and Goldscheider, 2007). The above referenced article shows evidence that the more learned put off marriage, have less children and view family roles as less important. (This is based in relation to expectations to themselves and their children living in early adulthood). Spiritual or religious associations have also been connected across a vast array of family domains with grater support for the family. These religious cultures encourage marriage, martial stability, especially non-approval of non-martial child bearing, and encouragement for traditional descriptions of marriage. In looking at the importance of marriage from the viewpoint of male and female research conducted for this paper suggest that men and women view marriage as more important to men than women. (Kaufman and Goldscheider, 2007) ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence in the Marriage Relationship In the article Ã¢â¬Å"ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence in the Marriage RelationshipÃ¢â¬ the research shows that there are reciprocal effects between children and marriage. The emotional security theory suggests that exposure to martial conflicts improves childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s negative emotions, resulting in emotional insecurity. This emotional insecurity promotes childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s impulses to go between, run away from or in other forms lessens the occurrence of martial discord. (Schermerhorn, Cummings, Mark, DeCarlo, Davies, Patrick, 2007) The article goes on to state: Ã¢â¬Å"Attempts to reduce exposure to discord indicate that the goal of preserving emotional security us activated, serving as a mechanism by which children maintain or achieve emotional security. The first two aims of the present article are to investigate reciprocity between the child and the martial system, including examination of both the influence of martial conflict on the child and child behavioral responses that influence martial functioning. Ã¢â¬ (Schermerhorn, Cummings, Mark, DeCarlo, Davies, Patrick, 2007) From the research we can see that children are more likely to be negatively impacted by martial discord. Many times the child resorts to mediation to help fix the problems. Overall the findings of my research showed that children engage in behaviors to by some means reduce discord between parents. This in return reduces the childÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure family threats. Another behavioral response is Behavioral dysregulation (i. e. , acts of verbal or physical aggression, misbehavior, or hurting oneself). Clinic literature indicates that discord in marriages corresponds to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior problems including aggressive behavior. Some have suggested that this behavior may show a taking on of the marriages problem to them self in demonstrating agentic behavior. This, from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, would distract parents from marital difficulties giving the childÃ¢â¬â¢s negative behavior a purpose to reduce martial discord over time. Schermerhorn, Cummings, Mark, DeCarlo, Davies, Patrick, 2007) The study also showed the effects on psychological adjustment. An excerpt from the article states: Ã¢â¬Å"The third aim of this study is to examine relations between childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioral responses to martial discord and their adjustment. In one of the few studies examini ng this link, Patenaude (2000) found that for girls who believed they could control interparental conflict by engaging in parent-protecting behaviors, higher martial conflict was associated with better adjustment. In contrast, for boys believing in a parentified role in the martial relationship, higher martial conflict was associated with more internalized sysmptoms, albeit non-significantly. Ã¢â¬ (Schermerhorn, Cummings, Mark, DeCarlo, Davies, Patrick, 2007) The research I conducted on children next suggests that when children react in a proactive nature to interparental discord by attempting to mediate, conflict in fact decrease over time. Even though negative behavior is a form of insecurity concerning the marriage relationship, the present study suggests that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s usage of negative attitudes and behavior as a constructive coping strategy can actually provide help towards reducing marital discord. In contrast to proactive behavior, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s negative behavior was linked with more destructive interparental relations over a period of time. It is likely that these behaviors by children donÃ¢â¬â¢t take their parents attention away from the marital discord but actually contribute to it by increasing conflict. However the method of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s associates is unsure. The outcome of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior may be best understood by looking at each situation. For example, parents who are able to see that the child is trying to help may be more inclined to decrease conflict. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not that the child solves the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma, but that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s actions allow the parent to see the childÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering and discomfort. This may guide parentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to solve problems than the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to constructively cope with the situation. It is not suggested that children should become actively engaged in marital discord because there are findings that show childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s helping behavior can contribute to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s depression. (Schermerhorn, Cummings, Mark, DeCarlo, Davies, Patrick, 2007) We will next discuss psychological distress and martial conflict in the home. References Avery, A. , Chase, J. , & Johansson, L. (2007). America's changing attitudes towards homosexuality, civil unions, and same-gender marriage: 1977-2004. Social Work, 52(1), 71-79. Fowers, B. , Lyons, E. , Montel, K. , & Shaked, N. (2001, March). Positive illusions about marriage among married and single individuals. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(1), 95-109. Retrieved September 01, 2009, doi:10. 1037/0893-3200. 15. 1. 95 Kaufman, G. , & Goldscheider, F. (2007). Do men Ã¢â¬Ëneed' a spouse more than women? : Perceptions of the importance of marriage for men and women. Sociological Quarterly, 48(1), 29-46. Papp, L. M. , Goeke-Morey, M. C. , & Cummings, M. E. (2007). Linkages between spouses' psychological distress and marital conflict in the home. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 533-537. Rhoades, G. K. , Stanley, S. M. , & Markman, H. J. (2006). Pre-engagement Cohabitation and Gender Asymmetry in Marital Commitment. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 553-560. Schermerhorn, A. C. , Cummings, M. E. , & DeCarlo, C. A. (2007). Children's influence in the marital relationship. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(2), 259-269. Stolz, L. (1941, October). Review of Family BehaviorModern Marriage, and Modern Marriage. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 36(4), 608-610. Retrieved September 01, 2009, doi:10. 1037/h0052788 Neubeck, G. (1959, Sum). Review of Why Marriages Go Wrong. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6(2), 168-169. Retrieved September 01, 2009, doi:10. 1037/h0039159
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Entry 2: The Challenges, The Criminal Appeal Process and the Adequateness Introduction It is of great importance to discuss the challenges faced by indeterminate sentence prisoners maintaining factual innocence as it forms many questions revolving around the criminal appeals process and the adequacy of procedures as it pertains to the prison system, the Parole Board and the Criminal Case Review Commission (CCRC). I will discuss these issues in light of Stefan Kiszko and a comparison of both Canada s and Australia s appeal system. Challenges The challenges faced by indeterminate sentence prisoners maintaining factual innocence is preposterous as it constitutes as a barrier rather than a questioning of the innocence and the pursuanceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, the prison system is based on a reward-system where if the prisoners act in accordance with the prisons rules and participate in programs, then they may be offered an early release on parole as a basis for reward. However, the refusal to acknowledge guilt impacts this reward-system because indeterminate sentence prisoners maintaining factual innocence are non-compliant with sentence programmes and lack participation. Another challenge faced by those maintaining factual innocence is the issue of false confessions. Many prisoners who are factually innocent have become victims of signing or agreeing to false confessions with the prospect of being released from interrogation, promises of a parole deal, or early release. This was the case of Stefan Kiszko as he was convicted on the basis of a false confession and had been urged throughout to admit to the guilt. In addition, in 1983 Kiszko was told that he would be eligible for parole if he admitted to the murder and sexual assault of Lesley Molseed. The Kiszko case exemplifies the challenges that are faced among indeterminate sentence prisoners by which such challenges are not an issue of concern for the Parole Board and therefore need to be addressed. Criminal Appeal Process As of 1 January 1997, the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) was enacted as established by the